Budget 2021 key points: Alcohol, fuel and tax changes revealed

    Here are the key points from Chancellor Rishi Sunak's budget speech:

    • The chancellor says there are "challenging" months ahead, adding that inflation in September was 3.1% and is likely to rise further - the Office for Budget Responsibility expects it to average 4% over the coming year

    • Pressures caused by supply chains and the energy crisis will "take months to ease"

    • The economy will return to pre-COVID levels at the turn of the year - an improvement on OBR forecasts revealed in March

    • The economy is expected to grow by 6% in 2022, and 2.1%, 1.3% and 1.6% over the following three years

    • In July last year, at the height of the pandemic, unemployment was expected to peak at 12% but the OBR now expects it to peak at 5.2%

    • Compared to 2020, wages have grown by 3.4%

    Rishi Sunak's budget and all the reaction

    • Underlying debt is forecast to be 85.2% of GDP this year

    • It will reach 85.4% in 2022-23, before peaking at 85.7% in 2023-24

    • It is expected to fall in the final three years of the forecast from 85.1% to 83.3%

    • Total departmental spending over this parliament will increase by £150bn, growing by 3.8% a year in real terms

    • Spending on healthcare will increase by £44bn to over £177bn by the end of this parliament

    • Extra revenue from the health and social care levy will go towards the NHS and social care as promised

    • The health budget will be the largest since 2010, with record investment in research and development, better screening, 40 new hospitals and 70 hospital upgrades among other improvements

    • 50,000 more nurses, 50 million more primary care appointments

    • £4.8bn for local government over the next three years for social care

    • Mr Sunak says the budget funds an ambition to recruit 20,000 new police officers

    • £2.2bn for courts, prisons and probation services, including £500m to reduce the backlog in courts

    • Programmes to tackle neighbourhood crime, reoffending, county lines crimes, violence against women and girls, victims' services, and improved response to rape cases

    • £3.8bn for the "largest prison-building programme in a generation"

    • £11.5bn to build up to 180,000 affordable homes - 20% more than the previous programme

    • £1.8bn to bring 1,500 hectares of brownfield land into use

    • £640m a year to help those who are rough sleepers and homeless

    • £5bn to remove unsafe cladding from the highest risk buildings, partly funded by a residential property developers' tax, which will be levied on developers with profits over £25m at a rate of 4%

    • £2.6bn for upgrades of over 50 roads

    • More than £5bn for road maintenance - enough to fill one million more potholes a year, Mr Sunak says

    • More than £5bn for buses, cycling and walking improvements

    • HGV levy (previously suspended until August) will now be suspended until 2023

    • Vehicle excise duty for heavy goods vehicles to be frozen

    • Funding to improve lorry park facilities

    • £46bn investment in railways, with an integrated rail plan to be published soon

    • £5.7bn for "London-style transport settlements" in Greater Manchester, Liverpool City Region, Tees Valley, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, West Midlands, West of England

    • £300m for parenting programmes for families, tailored services to help with perinatal mental health

    • £150m to support training and development for early years workforce

    • £200m for Supporting Families programme which helps families with varied needs

    • Over £200m to continue the holiday activity and food programme

    • £560m for youth services - enough to fund up to 300 youth clubs in England

    • More than £200m to build or transform up to 8,000 community football pitches in the UK

    • £2bn new funding to help schools and colleges with "education recovery", bringing total support (some already announced) to almost £5bn

    • Restoring per pupil funding to 2010 levels in real terms, equivalent to a cash increase for every pupil of more than £1,500

    • 30,000 new school places for children with special needs and disabilities

    • Business rates will remain at the same rate, with Mr Sunak saying that it would be wrong to find £25bn in extra borrowing through cuts to public services or tax rises elsewhere

    But there will be some changes:

    • New 50% business rates discount for businesses in the retail, hospitality and leisure sectors, including pubs, music venues, cinemas, restaurants, hotels, theatres, and gyms

    • This will mean any eligible business can claim a discount up to a maximum of £110,000 - a tax cut worth almost £1.7bn

    • Mr Sunak says that, together with small business rates relief, this means more than 90% of all businesses in these sectors will see a discount of at least 50%

    • Those who pay business rates will benefit from more frequent re-evaluations every three years from 2023

    • New investment relief to encourage businesses to adopt green technology such as solar panels

    • Business rates improvement relief - from 2023 every business will be able to make property improvements and, for 12 months, pay no extra business rates. This and the investment relief above total £750m

    • To help businesses pay their tax bills, next year's planned increase in the multiplier will be cancelled - a cut of £4.6bn over the next five years

    • An overhaul of alcohol duty, cutting the number of main duty rates from 15 to six - the stronger the drink, the higher the rate

    • Small producer relief will extend the principle of small brewers' relief to small cidermakers and others making alcoholic drinks of less than 8.5% ABV

    • Sparkling wines will pay the same duty as still wines of equivalent strength, rather than the 28% they currently pay. Duty will also be cut for fruit cider

    • Planned rise in fuel duty will be cancelled, meaning that - after 12 consecutive years of frozen rates, the average car driver will save a total of £1,900

    • National living wage to increase next year by 6.6% to £9.50 an hour. For a full time worker, that's a pay rise worth over £1,000

    • This move will help more than two million of the lowest-paid workers, Mr Sunak says

    • £1m annual investment allowance will not end in December as planned. It will be extended to March 2023

    • Bank surcharge within corporation tax will be retained at 3% and overall corporate tax rate on banks will increase from 27% to 28% in 2023

    • Help for challenger banks - raising the annual allowance to £100m

    • Tonnage tax (shipping) reform will see companies rewarded for adopting the UK's merchant shipping flag, the red Ensign

    • Reform of tax relief for research and development investment

    • Mr Sunak has adjusted the universal credit taper, which reduces financial support as people work more hours

    • The rate is currently 63%, so for every extra £1 someone earns, their universal credit is reduced by 63p. Mr Sunak announced plans to cut this by 8 percentage points (from 63% to 55%). This will come into effect "within weeks"

    • Work allowances being increased by £500 - combined with the change to the taper, this is a tax cut worth more than £2bn, he says. Nearly two million families will keep, on average, an extra £1,000 a year

    • Flights between airports in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland will be subject to a lower rate of air passenger duty from April 2023

    • Nine million people will see air passenger duty costs cut in half and the move will boost regional airports

    • Financial support for English airport extended for a further six months

    • An ultra long haul band will be added to air passenger duty, covering flights of over 5,500 miles, with an economy rate of £91. Mr Sunak says less than 5% of passengers will pay more but those who fly furthest will pay the most

    • £850m to protect museums, galleries, libraries, and "local culture"

    • More than 100 regional museums and libraries will be renovated, restored and revived

    • Tax relief for museums and galleries - due to end in March - will be extended for two years until March 2024

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